Laws are not self-enforcing

Laws are not self-enforcing. Those to whom they are directed need to understand what they mean to them. Parliament generally just passes laws and then expects others to communicate their content – generally through the media, specifically when individuals seek legal advice, and diffusely through word of mouth. Good legislative practice should consider the means by which the content is communicated.

Ethics and integrity bodies within line agencies, particularly those with a high potential for corruption

? A process for appointing special commissions of investigation in which the commissioners are appointed by a bi-partisan process

? An independent audit office

? A local government oversight office

? Free and fair elections

? An empowered community

In addition to the above ‘government’ institutions, it is also important that other institutions be present and active in playing their roles. Each of these should have their own integrity system to maximize the chance that they will fulfill their functions within the national integrity system/ethics regime and live up to the justifications for the various privileges that they generally possess:

? An independent bar

? A free and diverse press

? Active professions -especially journalists and lawyers

? Active nongovernmental organizations

? Independent academic institutions

Political parties play a critical role in the operation of democracies. By putting alternative agendas to the electorate and being responsible for their delivery, they are a necessary part of any integrity system. However, they also provide some of greatest opportunities for corruption. It is thus critical that integrity systems are in place to maximize the chances that they play that critical role, rather than act as a conduit through which cash can corrupt government policy and trump democracy.

The answers include a mix of measures to reduce the reliance on political donations and to make those that remain transparent! The real problem of political donations is posed when we ask the simple question: would rational donors give donations without an expectation of return? Where donors are corporations who otherwise insist on their sole responsibility to increase shareholder wealth, a ‘yes’ answer makes one wonder how they believe they are increasing the wealth of their shareholders!

The institutional means to ensure that political parties play their role need constant updating to deal with those who will seek to get around them. The temptations to abuse are so great that ethical.

This transparency may have to go so far as all meetings between donors and either party officials or members of political parties holding political office and appointees of political parties.

However, it is necessary to emphasize the central role of ethics in this issue to co-ordinate legal and institutional reform. Politicians should be conscious of the critical role they play in a democracy and seek to live up to that role and make the subversion of that role a major issue.It is these three components together with other parameters make their actions or intents.

To understand this phenomenon it is necessary to identify a number of concepts with common points.

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