Archive for April, 2012

Description the common mode of operation for them is in a group calling mode in which a single button push will connect the user to the users in a selected callgroup and/or a dispatcher

Description The common mode of operation for them is in a group calling mode in which a single button push will connect the user to the users in a selected callgroup and/or a dispatcher. It is also possible for the terminal to act as a one-to-one walkie talkie but without the normal range limitation since the call still uses the network. If enabled by the Subscriber Management TETRA terminals can act as mobile phones (cell phones), with a full-duplex direct connection to other TETRA Users or the PSTN. Emergency buttons, provided on the terminals, enable the users to transmit emergency signals, to the dispatcher, overriding any other activity taking place at the same time. TETRA uses Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) with four user channels on one radio carrier and 25 kHz spacing between carriers. Both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint transfer can be used. Digital data transmission is also included in the standard though at a low data rate. TETRA Mobile Stations (MS) can communicate Direct Mode or using Trunked infrastructure (Switching and Management Infrastructure or SwMI) made of TETRA Base Stations (TBS). As well as allowing direct communications in situations where network coverage is not available, Direct Mode or DMO also includes the possibility of using one (or a chain) of TETRA terminals as relays for a signal. This functionality is called DMO gateway (from DMO to TMO) or DMO Repeater (DMO to DMO). In Emergency situations this feature allows direct communications underground or in areas of bad coverage. In addition to voice and dispatch services, the TETRA system supports several types of data communication. Status messages and Short Data Services (SDS) are provided over the system’s main control channel, while Packet Data or Circuit switched data communication uses specifically assigned traffic channels. TETRA provides Authentication Mechanisms of Terminals towards Infrastructure and vice versa. For protection against eavesdropping, over the air encryption and end-to-end encryption is available. Advantages of TETRA The main advantages of TETRA over other technologies (such as GSM) are: the much lower frequency used gives longer range, which in turn permits very high levels of geographic coverage with a smaller number of transmitters, thus cutting infrastructure costs. High spectral efficiency – 4 channels in 25 kHz and no guard bands, compared to GSM with 8 channels in 200 kHz and guard bands. very fast call set-up – a one to many group call is generally set-up within 0.5 seconds (typical less than 250 msec for a single node call) compared with the many seconds (typically 7 to 10s) that are required for a GSM network. Works at high speeds >400 km/h. TETRA was used during the French TGV train speed record on 3 April 2007 at 574.8 km/h. the system contains several mechanisms, designed into the protocols and radio parameters, to ensure communication success even during overload situations (e.g. during major public events or disaster situations), thus calls will always get through unlike in cellular systems. The system also supports a range of emergency calling modes. TETRA infrastructure is usually separate from (but connected to) that of the public (mobile) phone networks, resulting in (normally) no call charges for the system owners, substantially more diverse and resilient communications and it is easy to customise and integrate with data applications (vehicle location, GIS databases, dispatch systems etc). unlike most cellular technologies, TETRA networks typically provide a number of fall-back modes such as the ability for a base station to process local calls. So called Mission Critical networks can be built with TETRA where all aspects are fail-safe/multiple-redundant. in the absence of a network mobiles/portables can use ‘direct mode’ whereby they share channels directly (walkie-talkie mode). gateway mode – where a single mobile with connection to the network can act as a relay for other nearby mobiles that are out of range of the infrastructure. TETRA also provides a point-to-point function that traditional analogue emergency services radio systems did not provide. This enables users to have a one-to-one trunked ‘radio’ link between sets without the need for the direct involvement of a control room operator/dispatcher. unlike the cellular technologies, which connect one subscriber to one other subscriber (one-to-one) then TETRA is built to do one-to-one, one-to-many and many-to-many. These operational modes are directly relevant to the public safety and professional users. TETRA supports both air-interface encryption and End-to-end encryption Rapid deployment (transportable) network solutions are available for disaster relief and temporary capacity provision. Equipment is available from many suppliers around the world, thus providing the benefits of competition Network solutions are available in both the older circuit-switched (telephone like) architectures and flat, IP architectures with soft (software) switches. Further information is available from the TETRA Association (formerly TETRA MoU) and the standards can be downloaded for free from ETSI. Disadvantages of TETRA Its main disadvantages are: requires a linear amplifier to meet the stringent RF specifications that allow it to exist alongside other radio services. handsets are more expensive than cellular (about 750 EUR in 2003, about 600 EUR in 2006). This is due to the more difficult technology, smaller economies of scale, and different business model (eg: need for security, high powers and robustness). However cheaper than main (PMR) *competitor technology APCO-16 where prices are >$3000 per handset. TETRA prices expected to fall further as far eastern manufacturers start production in 2007. data transfer is efficient and long range (many km), but slow by modern standards at 7.2 kbit/s per timeslot (3.5 kbit/slot net packet data throughput), although up to 4 timeslots can be combined into a single data channel to achieve higher rates whilst still fitting into a single 25 kHz bandwidth channel. Latest version of standard supports 115.2 kbit/s in 25 kHz or up to 691.2 kbit/s in an expanded 150 kHz channel. due to the pulsed nature of TDMA employed by the protocol and higher powers than cellular, handsets (only) can sometimes interfere with badly designed (usually old) or sensitive electronic devices such as broadcast (TV) receivers. This has prompted some concerns from users of sensitive devices such as heart pacemakers but there are no documented reports of problems even though used regularly by many ambulance crews. As a precaution, users of these equipments should take care with any RF transmitting equipment when used in close proximity (e.g. < 1 metre distance.) TETRA Usage The TETRA-system is in use by the public sector in the following countries Continent Country Name Agency Status Asia Pakistan Ministry of Interior Police In use Nationwide India Military College of Telecommunication Engineering (MCTE) Indian Army In use since 2004 at Mhow, Indore, Madhya Pradesh AD100. Kerala Police. In use by police – Trivandrum city. Taiwan [] Taiwan Railways Administration,Railway Police Bureau In use. Israel Mountain Rose. Israel Defense Forces (IDF). In use by IDF, country-wide. Hong Kong EADS TETRA Terminals 2008 Beijing Olympics and Paralympic Games (Hong Kong Equestrian Event) Used from July 2008 to October 2008 Hong Kong Fire Services Department Fire Service, Ambulance In use. Hong Kong Police Force Police In use. Mass Transit Railway (MTR) Transport In use. Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) Transport Live from Feb 2009 Macao Melco-Crown Entertainment Casino-Hotels: Altira (formerly Crown Macau), and City of Dreams In use since 2007. Foras de Segurana de Macau All Emergency Services In use. Africa Sudan Ministry of Interior Police In use Nationwide Europe Belgium A.S.T.R.I.D Austria Police, Fire, Ambulance, Local Train Company In use in all states except Tyrol and Vorarlberg (still roll-out) Britain Airwave Police, Fire, Ambulance, Armed Forces, Highways Agency In use by police all over the country. Denmark SINE Police, Fire, Ambulance Nationwide roll-out in progress Ireland TETRA Ireland Garda, Fire, Ambulance, Defence Forces, Civil Defence, Security of State services Nation-wide roll-out network Italy Rete Interpolizie Polizia di Stato (Italian State Police), the Carabinieri (Military Police), the Guardia di Finanza (Customs Police), the Polizia Penitenziaria (Prison Police) and for the Corpo Forestale Italiano (Italian Forest Brigades) Roll-out Finland VIRVE Police, Fire, Ambulance, Customs, Defence Forces, Border guard Nation-wide network HelenNet Helsingin Energia (One of the largest energy companies in Finland), Security guards (Mostly at shopping malls, train/metro stations and trams), Helsinki’s public transport In use. Estonia [[ ]] Police, Fire, Ambulance, Customs Roll-out Greece C4I Police, Fire, Coast Guard Attica region OTE Airport, Metro, Security, Transportation, Taxi, Utilities, etc Nation-wide Public Network Latvia Ventamonjaks Serviss Ltd, Ventspils Oil & Gas In use since 2007. Netherlands C2000 Police, Fire, Ambulance Nation-wide network Norway Ndnett Police, Fire, Ambulance, Search and Rescue Roll-out Morocco ADM Highway authority Roll-out Sweden RAKEL Police, Fire Roll-out Portugal SIRESP Police, Fire, Ambulance Nation-wide Roll-out in use since 2007 Romania STS (Special Telecommunications Service) Police, Fire, Search&Rescue Nation-wide Middle East United Arab Emirates Nedaa Police, emergency services, professional communications Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al-Qaiwain, Ras Al-Khaimah, Fujairah operational Polikom Police, emergency services, professional communications Abu Dhabi Radio Frequencies In South America, TETRA uses frequencies: Emergency Systems Number Frequency Pair (MHz) Band 1 Band 2 1 380-383 390-393 2 383-385 393-395 Civil Systems Number Frequency Pair (MHz) Band 1 Band 2 1 410-420 420-430 2 870-876 915-921 3 450-460 460-470 4 385-390 395-399.9 Radio aspects To send information TETRA uses a digital modulation scheme known as /4 DQPSK, this is a form of phase shift keying. The symbol (baud) rate is 18,000 symbols per second, and each symbol maps to 2 bits, thus resulting in 36,000 bit/s gross. As a form of phase shift keying is used to transmit data during each burst, it would seem reasonable to expect the transmit power to be constant. However it is not. This is because the sidebands, which are essentially a repetition of the data in the main carrier’s modulation, are filtered off with a sharp filter so that unnecessary spectrum is not used up. This results in an amplitude modulation and is why TETRA requires linear amplifiers. The resulting ratio of peak to mean (rms) power is 3.65 dB. If non-linear (or not-linear enough) amplifiers are used, the sidebands re-appear and cause interference on adjacent channels. Commonly used techniques for achieving the necessary linearity include cartesian loops, and adaptive predistortion. The base stations normally transmit continuously and (simultaneously) receive continuously from various mobiles – hence they are Frequency Division Duplex. TETRA also uses TDMA (see above). The mobiles normally only transmit on 1 slot/4 and receive on 1 slot/4 so they are both Time Division and Frequency Division Duplex. Speech signals in TETRA are sampled at 8 kbit/s and then compressed with a vocoder using a technique called ACELP (Adaptive Code Excited Linear Prediction). This creates a data stream of 4.567 kbit/s. This data stream is error-protection encoded before transmission to allow correct decoding even in noisy (erroneous) channels. The data rate after coding is 7.2 kbit/s – the capacity of a single traffic slot when used 17/18 frames. A single slot consists of 255 usable symbols, the remaining time is used up with synchronisation sequences and turning on/off etc. A single frame consists of 4 slots, and a multiframe (whose duration is 1.02 seconds) consists of 18 frames. Hyperframes also exist, but are mostly used for providing synchronisation to encryption algorithms. The downlink (i.e. the output of the base station) is normally a continuous transmission consisting of either specific communications with mobile(s), synchronisation or other general broadcasts. All slots are usually filled with a burst even if idle (continuous mode). Although the system uses 18 frames per second only 17 of these are used for traffic channels, with the 18th frame reserved for signalling, Short Data Service messages (like SMS in GSM) or synchronisation. The frame structure in TETRA (17.65 frames per second = 18 frames in 1.02 seconds), consists of 18000 symbols/s / 255 symbols/slot / 4 slots/frame, and is the cause of the perceived “amplitude modulation” at 17 Hz and is especially apparent in mobiles/portables which only transmit on one slot/4. They use the remaining three slots to switch frequency to receive a burst from the base station two slots later and then return to their transmit frequency (TDMA). Cell Re-Selection (or Hand-over) in Images RSSI SRT FRT Cell Limit (Propagation Delay Exceed) This first representation demonstrates where the SRT (Slow Reselect Threshold) the FRT (Fast Reselect Threshold) and propagation Delay exceed parameters are most likely to be. These are represented in association with the decaying radio carrier as the distance increases from the TETRA Base Station. From this illustration, these SRT and FRT triggering points are associated to the decaying radio signal strength of the respective cell carriers. The thresholds are situated so that the cell reselection procedures occur on time and assure communication continuity for on-going communication calls. Initial Cell Selection Cell Initial Selection The next diagram illustrates where a given TETRA radio Cell Initial Selection. The initial cell selection is performed by procedures located in the MLE and in the MAC. When the cell selection is made, and possible registration is performed, the MS (mobile station) is said to be attached to the cell. The mobile is allowed to initially select any suitable cell that has a positive C1 value, i .e. the received signal level is greater than the Minimum Rx Level for Access parameter. The initial cell selection procedure shall ensure that the MS selects a cell in which it can reliably decode downlink data, i.e. on a main control channel (MCCH), and which has a high probability of uplink communication. The minimum conditions that shall have to be met are that C1 > 0. Access to the network shall be conditional on the successful selection of a cell. At mobile switch on, the mobile makes its initial cell selection of one of the base stations, which indicates the initial exchanges at activation. Refer to EN 300 392 2 16.3.1 Activation and control of underlying MLE Service Note 18.5.12 Minimum RX access level The minimum RX access level information element shall indicate the minimum received signal level required at the SwMI in a cell, either the serving cell or a neighbour cell as defined in table 18.24. Cell Improvable Cell Improvable The next diagram illustrates where a given TETRA radio cell becomes Improvable. The serving cell becomes improvable when the following occurs: The C1 of the serving cell is below the value defined in the radio network parameter cell reselection parameters, slow reselect threshold for a period of 5 seconds, and the C1 or C2 of a neighbour cell exceeds the C1 of the serving cell by the value defined in the radio network parameter cell reselection parameters, slow reselect hysteresis for a period of 5 seconds. Cell Usable Cell Usable The next diagram illustrates where a given TETRA radio cell becomes Usable. A neighbour cell becomes radio usable when the cell has a downlink radio connection of sufficient quality. The following conditions must be met in order to declare a neighbour cell radio usable: The neighbour cell has a path loss parameter C1 or C2 that is greater than the following: (FAST_RESELECT_THRESHOLD+FAST_RESELECT_HYSTERISIS) for a period of 5 seconds, and the service level provided by the neighbour cell is higher than that of the serving cell. No successful cell reselection shall have taken place within the previous 15 seconds unless MM requests a cell reselection. The MS-MLE shall check the criterion for serving cell relinquishment as often as one neighbour cell is scanned or monitored. The following conditions will cause the MS to rate the neighbour cell to have higher service level than the current serving cell: The MS subscriber class is supported on the neighbour cell but not on the serving cell. The neighbour cell is a priority cell and the serving cell is not. The neighbour cell supports a service (that is, TETRA standard speech, packet data, or encryption) that is not supported by the serving cell and the MS requires that service to be available. The cell service level indicates that the neighbour cell is less loaded than the serving cell. Cell Relinquishable (Abandonable) Cell Relinquishable The next diagram illustrates where a given TETRA radio cell becomes Relinquishable (Abandonable). The serving cell becomes relinquishable when the following occurs: The C1 of the serving cell is below the value defined in the radio network parameter cell reselection parameters, fast reselect threshold, for a period of 5 seconds, and the C1 or C2 of a neighbour cell exceeds the C1 of the serving cell by the value defined in the radio network parameter cell reselection parameters, fast reselect hysteresis, for a period of 5 seconds. No successful cell reselection shall have taken place within the previous 15 seconds unless MM (Mobility Management) requests a cell reselection. The MS-MLE shall check the criterion for serving cell relinquishment as often as one neighbour cell is scanned or monitored. Radio Down-link Failure Radio Down-link Failure When the FRT threshold is breached, the MS is in a situation where it is essential to relinquish (or abandon) the serving cell and obtain another of at least Usable quality. That is to say, the mobile station is aware that the radio signal is decaying rapidly, and must cell reselect rapidly, before communications are terminated because of radio link failure. When the mobile station radio-signal breaches the Rx Lev minimum the radio is no longer in a position to maintain acceptable communications for the user, and the radio link is broken. Radio link failure: (C1 < 0). Using the suggested values, this would be satisfied with the Serving Cell Level below -105 dBm. Cell reselection procedures are then activated in order to find a suitable radio base station. Infrastructure TETRA Parametres to be Verified This table serves only as a guide. Type of Radio Cover Parametre Distance in km Type of Communication City < 4 < 8 Pedestrian / Metro Sub-Urban 10 to 18 20 to 36 Bus / Train Countryside 18 to 31 36 to 62 Inter Regional Train In Air > 32 > 64 In Flight A Virtual MMI for TETRA radio Terminals Any given TETRA radio terminal using Java (J2ME /CLDC) based technology, provides the end user with the communication rights necessary to fulfill his or her work roll on any short duration assignment. For Dexterity, flexibility, and evolution ability, the RATP radio engineering department, have chosen to use the open sources, Java language specification administered by Sun and the associated work groups in order to produce a transport application tool kit. RATP TETRA MMI RATP-TETRA KVM- MMI Service acquisition admits different authorised agents to establish communication channels between different services by calling the service identity, and without possessing the complete knowledge of the ISSI, GSSI, or any other TETRA related communication establishment numbering plan. Service acquisition is administered through a communication rights centralised service or roll allocation server, interfaced into the TETRA core network. In summary, the RATP TETRA MMI aims are to: Allow any given agent while in exercise, to exploit any given radio terminal without materiel constraint. Provide specific transportation application software to the RATP end-user agents. (Service Acquisition , Fraud and Aggression control) This transport application tool-kit has been produced successfully and with TETRA communication technology and assures for the RATP transport application requirements for the future mentioned hereafter. The Home (Main) menu presents the end user with three possibilities: a) Service Acquisition, b) Status SDS, c) End user parameters Service Acquisition provides a means of virtually personalising the end user to any given radio terminal and onto TETRA network for the duration the end user conserves the terminal under his / her possession. Status SDS provides the end user with a mechanism for generating a 440Hz repeating tone that signals a fraud occurrence to colleagues who are currently within the same (dynamic or static) Group Short Subscriber Identity GSSI or to a specific Individual Short Subscriber Identity, ISSI for the duration of the assignment ( an hour, a morning patrol or a given short period allocated to the assignment). The advantage being that each of the end users may attach themselves to any given terminal, and group for short durations without requiring any major reconfiguration by means of radio software programming tools. Similarly, the aggression feature functions, but with a higher tone frequency (880Hz), and with a quicker repetitious nature, so to highlight the urgency of the alert. The Parameters tab provides an essential means to the terminal end-user allowing them to pre-configure the target (preprogrammed ISSI or GSSI ) destination communication number. With this pre-programmed destination number, the end-user shall liaise with the destination radio terminal or Roll Allocation Server, and may communicate, in the group, or into a dedicated server to which the service acquisition requests are received, preprocessed, and ultimately dispatched though the RATP TETRA core network. This simplifies the reconfiguration or recycling configuration process allowing flexibility on short assignments. The Parameters tab also provides a means of selecting pre selected tones to match the work group requirements for the purposes of Fraud and Aggression Alerts. A possibility of selecting any given key available from the keypad to serve as an aggression or fraud quick key is also made possible though the transport application software tool kit. The RATP recommend using the Asterisk and the Hash keys for the Fraud and Aggression quick keys respectively. For the fraud and aggression tones the RATP also recommend using 440Hz slow repeating tone (blank space 500 milli-seconds) and 880Hz fast repeating tone (blank space 250 milli seconds) respectively. The tone options are as follows: 440 Hz 620 Hz, 880Hz, 1060Hz. The Parameters page on yet another tab provides an Aid or Help menu and finally, the last tab within parameters describes briefly the tool kit the version and the history of the transport application tool kit to date. Refer also to: JSR-118, Mobile Information Device Profile, JSR-37, Wireless Messaging API, JSR120, Connected Limited Device Configuration JSR-139 Technology for the Wireless Industry JTWI-185: See also Rohill Provider of TETRA Communication Systems under TetraNode brand Artevea Provider of TETRA Communication Systems under T-MATRIX brand EADS Secure Networks, provider of TETRA Networks after it bought Nokia’s PMR business at 2005 Motorola provider of TETRA Networks under Dimetra IP brand NXDN, a two-way digital radio standard with similar characteristics P25, a TIA APCO standard used in North America References ^ ETSI EN 300 392-2 v3.2.1 ^ TETRA Association ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Selex Communications ^ External links Rohill TETRA Artevea TETRA Communication System EADS TETRA Motorola Dimetra TETRA Products A blog about TETRA Security and info Report on the health effects of TETRA by NRPB v  d  e Trunked radio systems Central controller Motorola systems: Type I Type II Type IIi Hybrid Type II SmartZone Type II SmartZone OmniLink iDEN Other: APCO Project 16 APCO Project 25 EDACS EDACS Provoice MPT-1327 OpenSky TETRA TETRAPOL Scan-based / distributed control General Electric Mobile Radio: GE Marc V Logic Trunked Radio: LTR Standard LTR Passport LTR Standard and Passport LTR MultiNet LTR-Net Categories: Trunked radio systems | Mobile telecommunications standards

Have you ever known someone who always seemed to boost your energy or just made you feel better when he or she was around

Have you ever known someone who always seemed to boost your energy or just made you feel better when he or she was around? In contrast, have you ever known someone who seemed to drain your energy or someone whom you were always trying to avoid? This is an example of the positive and negative forces of attraction at work, respectively.

Quite often, the power of attraction can be and is used by people for their own self-interest. But the effective leader uses the power of attraction to counterbalance the forces of apathy by avoiding the secure comfort zone of self-centeredness. Effective leadership is not a manipulative facade by a charismatic personality. In fact, manipulation plays no part in the genuine power of attraction. I have discovered through experience that there are five absolutes that form the foundation for the power of attraction:

1. Focus on Others First

Effective leaders always deliver measurable results by developing the strengths of those around them, demanding the best from people by building on their strengths rather than focusing on their weaknesses. Effective leaders are always encouragers whose first consideration regarding a decision is, “How will this decision best benefit those involved?” Focusing on others first does not mean that you disregard your own best interest, however. Self-interest is always a vital part of the equation, but never first. Self-centeredness comes from the habit of always considering self first. The forces of apathy are at play here — self-centeredness represents the security of a psychological comfort zone. But the effective leader focuses on others first and, as a result, attracts buy-in, cooperation, and commitment!

2. Commitment and Resolve Are Consistently Attractive

A very important ingredient in the power of attraction is being goal-directed. People are not attracted to aimless drifters. An attitude of I’m-just-trying-this-out-for-awhile-to-see-if-it-will-work is not attractive, and others can read that apathetic non-commitment like a book. The power of attraction is built on clear direction, firm commitment, and resolve. You may be fearful, uncertain, and insecure, but if you have the resolve to do what it takes for as long as it takes, you will succeed. Others will see that resolve and be attracted to it.

3. A Positive Self-Image is Worth More Than Gold

A positive self-image counterbalances the natural forces of apathy by never allowing self-doubt to become a comfort zone of security. You can discover whether your self-image is positive or negative by simply listening to your self-talk, whether it is verbal or silent. Listen to what you say to yourself everyday and ask yourself these questions: Am I confirming my success or my failure? Am I confirming my positive self-image or my feelings of self-doubt? Everyone has fearful thoughts, but you can fight them by intentionally replacing them with a positive affirmation of faith. Repeating positive affirmations to yourself builds your positive self-image, and a positive self-image is attractive.

4. You Must Be Aware of and Attentive to How Other People See You

It is important to know how other people see you and to evaluate their impressions. If you are serious about developing the power of attraction, pay close attention to how you dress, act, and represent yourself. We live in a physical environment, and we attract or repel by the impressions we give. The most unfavorable and negative impression you can make is the impression of pessimism. Pessimism is the opposite of positive expectancy. Pessimism is the language of apathy — it speaks of no change. The comfort zone of apathy is comfortable because nothing is expected to change. Pessimism is unattractive; positive expectancy is attractive. You must adopt the language of positive expectancy if you desire the power of attraction.

5. Confidence Is the Most Attractive Impression You Can Make

Confidence always attracts positive outcomes. Now here is the catch when it comes to confidence: you build confidence from successful attempts. However, if you have tried something and have had zero successful attempts, your first human reaction is to stay in the secure comfort zone of quitting or blaming others. Yet no one has ever accomplished great things by quitting, and when you are in a leadership position, there is no one else to blame. What do you do then? Find a proven system and stick with it until you begin to experience successful attempts. If you do not have a proven system, find someone who does, and ask them to help you build one. You will build confidence and attract positive results!

Manage things and lead people

1. Manage things and lead people.

Processes should be defined and managed daily. People should be lead by example daily. Management by strict control inhibits star performers and eliminates creativity of intelligent people. Feelings of manipulation are caused by strict control. Control, manipulation, and disrespect keep many dealerships from moving to another level of performance.

2. Speed of the boss = speed of the team.

If the boss has a sense of urgency, the team will, too. The leader sets the tone. Great leaders create an attitude and atmosphere of winning. The leader sets the stage for the proper belief systems necessary to succeed.

3. Coach people more than you manage deals.

If you spend your time coaching people through training, one-on-ones and positive feedback, your people will become less addicted to you. Spend 80% of your day with your team and your customers. The rest can wait.

4. Create a Stop Doing List..

To find out what to do, you must also define what not to do. What are you doing everyday that you should either, stop doing, delegate, or do less of, or at a different time?

5. Practice the 4 D.s of action management.

Dump it, Defer it, Delegate it, or Do it. With proper action management, you will spend less time in crisis and emergency mode.

6. Recruiting is an ongoing process.

Determine an ongoing action plan for recruiting. What channels will you use to recruit and how much time each week to do it. What automated systems can you set up through web sites, job boards, college placement centers, military posts, etc. can you set up to increase potential candidates? Don’t wait until you need people to dig through the drawer to find the help wanted ad that everyone else uses.

7. Set clear expectations.

People need and desire clear expectations of their job functions, behavior, and performance. The days of hiring people and showing them the inventory, their desk, and telling them to get busy are over. For a greater chance of success, people cannot succeed without written and communicated expectations.

8. People don’t change that much, so stop trying.

Do not try to put in what God left out. When a person has reached adulthood, they primarily tend to repeat the patterns either they have created or that are based upon their nature. Grow a person’s strengths, and stop trying to fix their weaknesses.

9. Educate and motivate daily.

Good people want continuing education. Educate and motivate every day. Educating daily creates results; periodical training never does. If you have people rejecting education, then you must reject them. Would a great coach allow certain players to not practice because they didn’t want to?

10. Listen, listen, listen.

Nothing inspires people more than when they feel a manager will actually listen. People need to be respected and heard. A manager’s best customers are the people they coach.

11. Get out from behind the desk.

Lead the team. People want to know that their leader is one of them. Desks can become huge barriers to communicating.

12. Don’t forget emotions.

Behind all goals, dreams, achievements, and failures are emotions. Learn to tap into each team member’s pleasure and pain motivators to better guide them. Coach each team member with this in mind – thoughts become words, words become actions, actions create habits, habits create results, and they are all seeking emotions.

Great leadership is essential in creating great teams. Expect more of yourself and your team will follow. The leader is the final reason for success or failure.

Management training workshops what makes management development effective

Management Training workshops

What makes management development effective?

Read this article to find out more about:

· What criteria to consider before investing in management training workshops in your organisation

· What needs to be in place to ensure that management training workshops are effective

· How to evaluate the effectiveness of the management training intervention that you develop

· How to brief external providers to ensure that they understand the purpose of the program

· What Management Consultancy International can do to assist you in developing and delivering effective management training

Why is Management Consultancy International in a strong position to talk to this topic?

Management Consultancy International consults to global organisations on their learning and development strategies and on devising effective workshops to improve management capabilities. With over 19 years experience in developing managers internationally who bring a higher level of competence to their workplaces, Management

Consultancy International has created the following key guidelines for better management workshops.

Management Consultancy International provides a range of management training workshops that encourage a higher level of management effectiveness. Some of these programs are available on a public schedule and others are specifically designed to meet the needs of small or large groups within organisations. There are also train the trainer options to ensure that the process is more affordable.

What criteria do you need to consider before investing in management training workshops in your organisation.

Management training workshops are generally costly – both from the perspective of paying a provider to design and deliver the training and also from the point of view of time off work to attend the courses. So – why spend this type of money without any assurance that the training will make a difference to the level of management effectiveness.

Management effectiveness is after all not something that is readily measurable in a ‘return on investment’ type formula. You are not training tangible skills and it is far more difficult to measure such intangible results. “The managers are dealing more effectively with conflict in their teams” does not sound as wonderful as an ROI type statement that runs along the lines of “our sales training program for the product launch achieved a 50% increase in sales as compared with last month’s figures.”

So what criteria need to be considered before making the investment in running workshops to train managers:

1. Set a clear purpose

It is simply not good enough to have a gut feel that managers need training or to simply respond to verbal requests for management skills. Yes – managers might be asking for training themselves or these needs might be revealed in performance appraisal discussions. BUT if there is no clearly defined objective set for the training, you will not be able to measure the effectiveness of the workshops.

Only once the purpose statement is clearly outlined do you even begin to think of the pathways that are going to lead you to achieving these goals.

This purpose statement needs to be verbally determined and also written down in clear, jargon-free English.

Begin with – the purpose for introducing the management training workshops is as follows….

The sentence continues with – as a result of the management workshops, managers will be able to perform the following tasks more effectively or will have the following improved skills….

Continue your purpose statement by agreeing how these outcomes will be measured – the effectiveness of the program will be measured by follow-up meetings with co-workers or discussions with team members or any other means that you want to put in place to ensure that there has been a change in management behaviours and attitudes.

Remember – do not bother introducing training workshops unless you are totally clear on what the required changes are as a result of the workshop. IF TRAINING DOES NOT LEAD TO CHANGE, WHY DO IT AT ALL!

Rather spend your hard-won budget sending your managers out on a cruise of Sydney harbour and you will have loyal and motivated managers. If you are going to spend the budget on training, there needs to be a serious commitment to changes in behaviours.

There are many times that as external providers that we attend briefing meetings with clients who are seeking input on running management training workshops. At these meetings the purpose statements are not clearly conveyed and this indicates confusion about why the training is taking place at all and what the whole effort is intended to achieve.

2. Determine the best possible route

Once you have created your purpose statement and you can express it clearly to others, you are then in a position to decide on the best ways to achieve your objectives.

There are so many flexible routes available that you do not need to be restricted by restrictive providers as to what is achievable. Insist on working with a provider who will meet your specific requirements and who will provide innovative ways of delivering training even to small numbers in the management team.

Bear in mind that ad-hoc workshops are not going to be nearly as effective as a series of workshops that lead up to your intended outcome. Realistically, in a one day workshop there are indeed skills that one can learn. However in order for these skills to be practiced and entrenched, this is not entirely feasible.

Management training is not necessarily only skills-based. It is in some instances about undoing habits that might have been in place for some time. Management training is about relearning new techniques or discovering more about oneself.

Management workshops provide the forum for discussion and debate. Not all management issues are solved through cut and dried solutions and a range of possibilities need to be placed on the table to be tried out depending on the context.

It is therefore preferable to offer management workshops in some form of continuum where skills can be practiced in the workplace and then re-evaluated in the training room.

The workshops themselves do not need to be only a serried of full day sessions. Consider:

· Smaller groups that work together in shorter 2 or 3 hour sessions.

· Off-site residential sessions

· One on one sessions with managers

· Some own study time between sessions

· Self-directed group sessions where managers work through topics on their own without a facilitator present and then report back to the full group when they re-convene

· Pre- and post-course reading between facilitated sessions

If the program is in-house you also do not want programs that are standardised and pulled off a shelf. Demand that the programs are tailored for your specific needs – AND do not pay a huge premium for this service.

3. Invite managers to the workshops

It is far better to create a sense of excitement about the management training workshops than instruct managers to attend the workshops.

Management Consultancy International trainers regularly report on managers who have been obliged to attend management workshops and are highly resistant to the training. Not everyone finds training exciting and not all managers see training as a wonderful opportunity to learn more about themselves and about others.

It sounds so old and stale, but it is essential to spell out clearly to managers why the training is taking place and what is in it for them. We all like tuning into the radio station – WIFM – what is in it for me. It is no use skirting this or leaving out this step. If this step is skipped, you are only making a facilitator’s task far more difficult in overcoming the steep resistance barriers that are set up.

Give thought to how the management workshops are launched and what type of communication is sent out about them.


· There are other alternatives to an email instructing managers to attend the workshops. Yes – the logistics can be sent by email but not the motivation

· Hand-delivered invitations that follow the theme of the workshops are well received

· Phone calls explaining the purpose and outcomes of the workshops are good or even better an induction session where the group hears first hand about why the program has been developed and what the expectations are

4. Workshop feedback

Once the workshops are underway, keep your fingers on the pulse. Solicit feedback from the managers but be careful of the type of questions you ask!

The following feedback questions are huge no-no’s:

Did you enjoy the training? How was the facilitator?

Having fun during the training is certainly an indication of a well-designed session but if the session does not stretch the managers and make them feel slightly uncomfortable in some way, the workshops are not going to be achieving their purpose.

Also, placing the emphasis on the facilitator is simply not going to achieve what you need to in terms of your purpose. Yes, the facilitator cannot be a boring and dry deliverer of information. However, the facilitator could not possibly know as much as everyone in the room and their combined knowledge. Deflect the focus from the facilitator and place it more on the message – what you the participants put into this training workshop is what you will get out of it.

Focus instead on questions such as:

1. What did you get out of the training and how will you apply these skills?

2. What else do you still need to know more about?

3. What will you do more or less of as a result of the workshops?

4. What impact do you think the training workshops have had on your team or on your colleagues?

What needs to be in place to ensure that management training workshops are effective?

Preparation and preparation are the key to effectiveness of the workshops.

Do all the homework as explained in this article and select a provider that will truly partner with you.

Your provider needs to:

1. Listen to your requests and customise at a low price

2. Speak directly to potential attendees on the program and possibly their team members or their managers

3. Include scenarios and examples that are relevant to the group

4. Work with you to improve the impact of the sessions as you receive feedback

Your responsibilities include:

1. Brief the provider clearly and set the purpose of the program out for them in straightforward language

2. Brief and communicate with participants and do not leave the provider to deal with resentful, non-committed participants

3. Ensure that you have an adequate budget and work creatively with the provider to overcome its limitations through careful scheduling and pre- and post-reading or through a train the trainer process

4. Give constructive feedback and work with the provider on improvements.

What Management Consultancy International can do to assist you in developing and delivering effective management training?

Management Consultancy International has a large number of small and major clients who run the Management Consultancy International suite of management training workshops.

Speak to us to find out why clients such as Allianz Insurance, Toll Holdings, Perisher Blue, Daikin and Vodafone benefit from our workshops.

Management Consultancy International ensures that:

You receive a series of management workshops developed specifically for your managers and their challenges

Your workshops are based on models proposed by leading world thinkers on management and leadership

Your workshops are facilitated by experienced and highly inspirational trainers who care about achieving the results you want

Your management training workshops are delivered in a range of flexible ways to meet your needs and your set outcomes

Your workshops make use of exciting examples and stories as well as a range of methodologies to entrench new thinking and motivate managers to try out new skills

Speak to one of our sales consultants on 1300 768 550 to set up a time for a consultant to speak to you about your needs. Alternatively email your requirements to and we would be delighted to assist you.

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